The negative effect of high temperature (fever) on the heart and lungs
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A decrease in arterial PCO2 against the background of increased carbon dioxide formation indicates a significant increase in alveolar ventilation. Moser, when studying the effects of pyrogen-induced fever on the heart and lungs in 10 healthy people, showed that cardiac output increases by an average of 27%. He also noted a drop in systemic blood pressure and an increase in pressure in the pulmonary artery.
Well-known tachycardia with fever in young children, reaching up to 200 beats / min. In the works of Kendell and Neyman, it was shown that artificial fever is accompanied by a decrease in the P-R interval and the disappearance of the T wave on the ECG. Kendell also notes vasodilation, leading to a decrease in venous return, which in turn causes a decrease in cardiac filling and a drop in cardiac output. The author described several cases of myocardial infarction in adults during pyrotherapy.
Not so long ago, Liedtke perfused a pig’s ischemic heart at different body temperatures and concluded that the heart loses extra energy during fever, and this is potentially dangerous for a damaged or ischemic myocardium.
Benumoff studied the effects of hyperthermia on hypoxia-induced pulmonary vasoconstriction on dogs. He showed that fever leads to a significant increase in hypoxic vasoconstriction. In patients with localized lesions of the lungs, such as lobar pneumonia, an increase in vasoconstriction has a positive value, because it leads to shunting of blood from poorly ventilated alveoli, experiencing hypoxia.
However, with massive lesions of the lungs (severe interstitial pneumonia or shock lung), excessive vasoconstriction, which extends to the entire lung, has an adverse effect. This is due to the fact that with increasing pressure in the pulmonary artery, the load on the right ventricle increases and in some cases right-left shunts open.
According to Pizzo, the pulse rate usually increases by about 10 beats / min and the respiration rate by 2 cycles per minute for every 0.55 ° C increase in body temperature.