The effect of age on the child’s body temperature
It is believed that, with the exception of the neonatal period, the body temperature in children is higher than in adults. The difference with age gradually decreases. This is probably due to the fact that in children the relative surface area of the body and the metabolic rate are greater than in adults. Apparently, neuroendocrine factors are also important.
In the study of 18-month-old children, the average peak of the rectal temperature was 37.6 ° C, and in half of these children the temperature was above 37.8 ° C.
Influence of motor and physical activity of a child on body temperature
Physical activity leads to a significant increase in the temperature of the “core”. Usually the temperature rises by several degrees. In healthy people after severe or prolonged physical exertion, rectal temperature of 40 ° C can be observed without any symptoms of infectious or thermal diseases.
Interestingly, the difference between oral and rectal temperatures may be greater than normal. Oral temperature is 1 ° C lower than rectal, probably due to the cooling of the mucous membrane when breathing through the mouth and hyperventilation.
Ambient and body temperature
The ambient temperature usually to a certain extent affects the temperature of the body, even in such a homoiothermal mammal as a human. For example, in very cold weather, rectal temperature can drop to 36.1 ° C, and oral temperature even lower.
In extreme heat, rectal temperature may rise above 37.8 ° C.
The effect of emotions on body temperature
Emotional stress can cause fever. There are reports of hyperpyrexia in patients with catatonic condition and other severe mental illnesses. Blasig has shown that emotional stress is developed in rats subjected to psychological stress.
Menstrual cycle and body temperature
It is well known that the body temperature is affected by the menstrual cycle. The temperature of the “core” decreases by 0.2 ° C a few days before the beginning of the menstrual period and remains at that level until ovulation. A small, often unnoticed decrease in temperature by 0.08 ° C is observed after ovulation, then it returns quite quickly to a high level, which decreases again several days before the next menstrual cycle begins.
The effect of nutrition on body temperature
On the temperature of the body affects the nature of power. Its slight increase may be due to the abundant food intake, especially rich in protein (the so-called specific dynamic effect of protein, which increases the metabolic rate and body temperature). On the other hand, insufficient calorie food leads to a decrease in body temperature.
Influence of clothes on body temperature
Body temperature is affected by the nature of clothing and its quantity, especially in young children, mainly at extreme temperatures of the environment. All pediatricians met with “fever” in newborns with a strong wrap and with a decrease in body temperature with not enough warm clothing in young children.
When the influence of the factors described above becomes significant, the question arises whether there is a pathology or is it an extreme value of the norm. It seems more important is the presence or absence of symptoms of the disease than the temperature values themselves.