The data on the regional lymph flow from the lungs are summarized in a certain sense. Differences in the development of individual sections of regional lymphatic collectors, the individual characteristics of their formation and the options for connections between them can somewhat alter the direction of lymph outflow. Very essential for a correct understanding of these processes is the state of the lymphatic apparatus itself throughout a person’s life.
The main restructuring of the lymphatic system ends at the age of 20 — and the reduction processes become especially noticeable at the age of 40. In the elderly and senile age, changes in the lymphatic apparatus lead to a disorder in the normal lymphatic outflow with some decompensation throughout individual sections of the lymphatic collectors. These disorders are eliminated, as a rule, by opening additional lymphatic vessels, which were previously in a functionally inactive state, which generally does not violate the general orientation of the movement of lymph from various parts of the lung.
Inflammatory diseases often affect the state of the regional lymphatic apparatus of the lungs, especially those leading to sclerotic changes in the lymph nodes, which then create, as a rule, persistent obstacles to lymph outflow. The blockade of individual sections of regional lymphatic collectors, with the extensive consequences of past inflammation, creates conditions for lymphostasis and retrograde lymphatic flow, which for a short time are usually eliminated by “incorporating” additional lymphatic vessels that were previously in a functionally inactive state into the lymphatic duct. Then, under these conditions, lymph from one or another lobe of the lung can flow in an unusual direction — bypassing blocked regional lymph nodes.
The most significant changes are undergoing lymph outflow from the lungs in people who have had tuberculosis. The resulting tuberculous lesions of the lymph nodes, up to their calcification, block the paths of normal lymph movement in this place for a long time and persistently. The deviation of the path of lymph outflow from different lobes of the lungs can then be especially significant and stable. In this case, lymphogenous metastasis of lung cancer is accompanied by damage to non-regional groups of lymph nodes, which have assumed the function of regional-blocked tuberculosis process. At the same time, it should always be borne in mind that even lymph nodes affected by a specific process with the phenomena of sclerosis and calcification of their parenchyma can participate in separate drainage and filtering of lymph from the lungs as separate sections of preserved tissue. This confirms the high plastic properties of the lymphatic system and shows that even with significant lesions of the regional reservoirs, lymph outflow recovery occurs mainly in the direction of its closest approach to the physiological movement from each of the lung lobes.