In the bronchopulmonary lymph nodes, two groups are distinguished: Actually intrapulmonary and root . The border between them is somewhat arbitrary: a plane is taken for it, mentally drawn vertically through the “gate” of the lung. In addition, the relationship of the lymph nodes with the lung tissue is taken into account: the intrapulmonary lymph nodes are covered by it on all sides, and the root nodes are located outside it or are only partially covered.
Root lymph nodes, in an amount of 4 — or slightly larger, are located around and between the elements of the root of the lung — bronchus, artery, pulmonary veins. In this group of nodes, there are: upper, lower, front and rear — depending on their relationship to the main bronchus. With the greatest constancy, lymph nodes are found in the anteroposterior regions of the lung root. The lower root lymph nodes without a clear boundary pass into the lymph nodes of the pulmonary mating . The number of these nodes is inconsistent, often they are not expressed, are more often found on the left.
Within the mediastinum, regional nodes for the lungs belong to the lymph nodes of the tracheal, anterior and posterior groups.
The tracheal group is represented by lymph nodes located in the space formed by the division of the trachea into the main bronchi and respectively designated as bifurcation, right and left tracheobron chial .
Bifurcation lymph nodes in an amount of 6 to 12 and up to 20 mm in size each resemble a quadrangular plate, more adjacent to the lower surface of the right main bronchus. In front of this group of lymph nodes lies adjacent to the pericardium above the left atrium, and behind the esophagus. The right tracheobronchial lymph nodes perform the area between the right lateral wall of the trachea immediately at the place where the right main bronchus leaves it. The number of lymph nodes forming this group is from 2 to 19, and their sizes reach 13 – mm. Without a clear boundary, the right tracheobronchial lymph nodes pass up along the right lateral wall of the trachea into the right paratracheal. An arbitrary boundary between these two groups of lymph nodes can be considered an unpaired vein at the place of its confluence with the superior vena cava. Here, one of the lower lymph nodes of the right paratracheal group, often quite large, is often isolated and called the “non- paired vein node ” . Both groups of lymph nodes — right tracheobronchial and right paratracheal in shape resemble a flask, which with its wide part is located in the region of the right tracheobronchial angle, and narrow — extends along the lateral wall of the trachea to the upper chest aperture. The right border of these nodes is the mediastinal pleura, the left is the right lateral wall of the trachea, the front is the posterior wall of the superior vena cava, and partly the ascending part of the aortic arch. Rear to the right paratracheal and tracheobronchial lymph nodes lies the right vagus nerve, the branches of which partially penetrate into the fiber between the nodes. The left tracheobronchial lymph nodes occupy the space formed by the angle of the trachea and the initial section of the left main bronchus under the lower surface of the aortic arch located here. In the front, this group of nodes is limited by the left pulmonary artery at the place of its formation and the arterial ligament (the infested Batalov duct), and from the back, it is adjacent to the esophagus. The number of lymph nodes that make up this group is small and variable — most often 3 — and their sizes do not exceed 20 mm. By their shape, the left tracheobronchial lymph nodes resemble a saddle, repeating from below the surface of the left main bronchus, and from above – the surface of the aortic arch.