Fever is a protective-adaptive mechanism of the human body, which develops as a reaction to the influence of pathogenic stimuli. Sometimes fever occurs also with non-infectious ailments. So the body reacts to the action of endotoxins, endogenous pyrogens, which are released when leukocytes are destroyed, a septic inflammatory process occurs, and metabolic disturbances and autoimmune processes are observed.
The processes of thermoregulation in the human body determine the center of thermoregulation, which is located in the human hypothalamus. These processes can be disturbed by exogenous or endogenous factors. Sometimes the temperature rises in the case of a violation of the processes of heat production and heat transfer and in the normal state of the center of thermoregulation.
The main manifestations of fever is an elevated body temperature. If the normal body temperature, measured in the armpit, should be 36.0-36.9, then with a fever these indicators increase. With a fever, a person experiences chills, headache, weakness, a strong aching feeling in the muscles.
The classification of fevers is practiced depending on various factors. Given the causes of this condition, infectious and non-infectious fever is determined.
With a body temperature of 38-38.9 ° C (body temperature 38-38.9 ° C), pyretic or high fever (body temperature 39-40.9 ° C), febrile fever (body temperature 38-38.9 ° C ) C) and hyperpyretic or excessive fever (body temperature 41 ° C or more).
Depending on the duration of this condition, acute, subacute and chronic fever is different.
According to the evaluation of body temperature and time, when they manifest themselves, a constant, laxative, intermittent, recurrent, wavy, irregular, perverted, hectic fever is determined. All types of fever have flow characteristics. For example, hectic fever develops with strong fluctuations in body temperature. Data of the type of fever are manifested in the development of certain diseases.
A number of diseases associated with fever and concomitant symptoms are identified.
Crimean hemorrhagic fever is a viral disease that develops after exposure to a pathogen transmitted by ticks. Crimean fever was first diagnosed in the Crimea. Signs of the disease were discovered as early as 1944. Its causative agent is an RNA-containing virus that enters the body through the skin when a person is bitten by a tick.
Symptoms of hemorrhagic fever are acute: body temperature increases rapidly, intoxication, as well as hemorrhagic syndrome (high level of bleeding). The patient may be disturbed by vomiting, in the initial manifestation a noticeable reddening of the face. After 2-6 days, hemorrhagic syndrome is observed, which is characterized by the appearance of a hemorrhagic rash on the shoulders, legs, hands.
If hemorrhagic fever develops with renal syndrome, then the acute onset of fever is combined with symptoms of intoxication and severe kidney damage. As a consequence, hemorrhagic renal fever leads to kidney and liver damage
insufficiency. There is bleeding gums, nosebleeds, a person can lose consciousness. Viral diseases associated with hemorrhagic syndrome, are also dangerous because a person can develop bleeding in the stomach and intestines. The development of complications (sepsis, pulmonary edema, pneumonia) and improper treatment can lead to death. Therefore, the prevention of infection is important: immediately after a tick bite, you need to contact a specialist. Hemorrhagic Far Eastern fever is a serious disease requiring urgent treatment.
A prolonged fever of unknown origin can be diagnosed if the body's high temperature (above 38 degrees) lasts for more than two weeks, and the causes of this phenomenon remain unsettled. In this case, a comprehensive survey was conducted and all diagnostic standards were taken into account. A very important point is the differential diagnosis of fever of unknown origin, since sometimes this diagnosis can be established erroneously. According to some experts, this type of fever is based on infection, development of a malignant tumor, systemic connective tissue diseases. In about 20% of cases, the cause of this type of fever, both in children and in adults, remains unclear. Treatment of the disease is prescribed depending on the intensity of the fever.
Yellow fever a person becomes infected from animals and humans, carriers of the pathogen are mosquitoes. The first symptoms of yellow fever occur about 3-6 days after a mosquito bite. The onset of yellow fever is acute: body temperature increases to 40 degrees, there is a severe headache and pain in the joints, back, legs. There is also a hemorrhagic component: the red face and the patient's face become very red and swollen. On the second day, a person suffers from severe vomiting, nausea and thirst. Approximately on the fifth day there comes a period of remission, when a person begins to feel better. But this improvement lasts only a few hours. Then the person becomes worse, as the thrombohemorrhagic syndrome develops. There may be bleeding, bloody vomiting. The disease is fraught with the development of serious complications - sepsis, pneumonia, myocarditis. Treatment of this disease consists in symptomatic therapy and prevention of further progression of the disease. The main preventive measures are vaccination. A vaccination against yellow fever is mandatory if a person leaves for areas where endemic conditions are noted for this disease. More than 45 endemic countries have been identified in Latin America and Africa, where they need to be vaccinated (Colombia, Peru, Brazil, Ecuador, Kenya, etc.).
The Western Nile fever is infectious. Transmission of the pathogen occurs with mosquito bites. The disease can arise both sporadically and be manifested by serious outbreaks. In Russia, such an outbreak was recorded in 1962-64, later outbreaks were observed in the CIS countries. Therefore, the prevention of West Nile fever is very important both in Africa and in Europe. Disease in humans begins acutely, with chills and a sharp rise in body temperature. The state of fever can last for up to two weeks. Symptoms of Nile fever are sweating, painful for the patient intoxication. The person is vomiting vomiting, headache, drowsiness, etc. If diagnosis was made on time, and symptomatic treatment facilitates the patient's condition, Nile fever is successfully cured.
Mouse fever a person becomes infected due to contact with rodents. Mice and rats do not get sick themselves, but only suffer this dangerous disease. The virus is excreted through the feces and urine of animals. The first symptoms of murine fever in children and adults at the initial stage of the development of the disease are similar to the acute form of acute respiratory disease. Before the first signs of murine fever occur in adults and children, from the time of infection passes from 7 to 46 days. What symptoms of murine fever occur in men and women in adulthood, most oftenTo learn or find out already for 25 day. Initially, the symptoms in adults are renal and hemorrhagic manifestations, and in children the disease manifests itself gradually: body temperature rises, nausea, vomiting, migraine, worsens vision.
Infection leads to severe consequences: the patient is affected by the kidneys, there is a serious intoxication of the body, there is a thrombohemorrhagic syndrome. If the first symptoms appeared and the treatment was not done in time, the kidney damage can eventually lead to death.
Mouse fever in children in the initial period is often taken for another disease, since its symptoms in the initial period can be taken for a severe cold or other infectious disease. Sometimes even during the diagnosis the doctor may suspect that other types of fevers develop. Prolonged fever, pale skin and other signs common to some types of fevers sometimes complicate the process of diagnosis.
Treatment takes place in bed rest. Complex therapy includes the use of antipyretic, antiviral anesthetics. Also, the practice of the appointment of infusion therapy, glucocorticoids, hemodialysis.
Acute rheumatic fever in children indicates that rheumatic pathology is already developing in the body. Acute rheumatoid fever is a very dangerous disease, as it primarily affects the cardiovascular system.
Classification of the disease is carried out along the course of the disease: acute rheumatic fever and repeated rheumatic fever are different. The cause of the disease is the effect of beta-hemolytic streptococcus. This microorganism affects connective tissues, this is facilitated by some additional factors. Acute rheumatic fever is manifested due to hypothermia, poor nutrition, malfunctions in the immune system, etc.
Symptoms of the disease are general intoxication, fever, joint pain, pale skin, irritability. After establishing the correct diagnosis, it is necessary to begin treatment immediately, since timely complex therapy determines the success of the treatment. Prevention of the disease consists in preventing the infection of streptococcal infection.
Hay fever in children over the age of five and adults develops as a result of an allergic reaction of the body to pollen of plants. Symptoms of hay fever are, first of all, allergic rhinitis and allergic conjunctivitis. Many people have some other signs - raggedness, fatigue, problems with appetite. The disease affects men more often, as well as those who have already experienced certain allergic reactions. Treating hay fever is often a long and complex process, especially if the person's goal is to get rid of this disease forever. The main cure for hay fever is antihistamines. Vasoconstrictors, glucocorticosteroids are also used. Practice is also the treatment of folk remedies. However, often people suffer from this ailment for many years, because with the help of treatment one can only reduce symptoms.
Symptoms of Dengue fever, also called tropical fever, are due to infection of the body with an infection that is carried by one of the mosquito species. Symptoms of tropical fever are severe pain in the muscles, high body temperature, diarrhea, cough, runny nose, conjunctivitis. The disease is curable, however, tropical hemorrhagic fever, which affects young people and children, causes acute bleeding, therefore it is very dangerous. The consequences of this disease can be fatal. Treatment is carried out immediately after an accurate diagnosis. Preventive maintenance consists in obligatory consultation at the expert before a trip to suchcountries like Thailand, etc. Vaccination is conducted from other types of fever, vaccination against tropical fever is currently not practiced.
The fevers of Ebola and Marburg have much in common, since their pathogens are similar. These diseases are very dangerous, contagious and in most cases result in death. Symptoms of fever Ebola and Marburg immediately manifested sharply, a person worried about chills, a strong fever, a general intoxication of the body. After a few days, symptoms of gastrointestinal lesions are noted, consciousness is disturbed. Hemorrhagic fever Ebola, like Marburg's hemorrhagic fever, can lead to death in the period from 4 to 27 days after infection. Treatment is to maintain vital functions, and symptomatic therapy is also practiced. The fever of Marburg ends with a lethal outcome in more than 80% of cases.
Hemorrhagic fever Lassa is characterized by the development of hemorrhagic syndrome, myocarditis, pneumonia, kidney damage. The level of mortality in this case is very high.
Family Mediterranean fever, which also has the name of a recurring illness, is manifested in man by recurrent cases of fever, inflammatory process of the lungs, abdominal organs, joints. This disease is more common in the native inhabitants of the Caucasus, the Mediterranean. The disease is diagnosed in childhood. Completely cure it is not possible, therefore, symptomatic treatment is practiced.
Marseilles fever is also typical for residents of the above-mentioned regions. The disease is characterized by high body temperature, rashes, pain in the limbs and headache, regional lymphadenitis, changes in the work of the cardiovascular system. Treatment is carried out using antibiotics-tetracyclines.
Spotted fever of the rocky mountains is manifested by intoxication, rash, damage to the cardiovascular system, vessels and the central nervous system. The disease is common in the Americas. The carriers of the disease are rodents, some pets. Treatment involves the administration of drugs of the tetracycline group or levomycetin.
In addition to the described types of fever, there are a number of other varieties of fevers that are dangerous to human life.
Treatment of fever is carried out under the condition of bed rest. It is important to establish the nature of the temperature increase and to put the correct diagnosis. When fever, provoked by colds, should be used antipyretic if the temperature rises above 38 degrees. Children are recommended to give paracetamol-based medicines to reduce temperature.
After the diagnosis is established, the doctor prescribes the treatment of the disease that was diagnosed. It is important not to delay the referral to a specialist under conditions that cause anxiety. For example, white fever in children is manifested by inadequate heat transfer, so there is a danger of serious overheating of the body. In this case, the doctor should be contacted immediately to establish the reasons for this condition and prescribe treatment. It is necessary to consult a doctor if the child has a postimmunization fever, that is, a fever after vaccination.
If a woman manifests a dairy fever, that is, the reaction of the body to the appearance of milk in the breast of a nursing mother, do not wait until this state goes by itself. This is fraught with complications, so the breast should be examined by a doctor.
A fever on the lips (so called in the people of the herpes rash) periodically appears in people who are infected with the herpes virus. How to cure herpes completely, doctors still do not know. However, local remedies can reduce the manifestations of the disease. Than to treat a fever on a lip, it is necessary to ask the doctor
Alexandra 17:27 | 02/13/2018
Many thanks to you for your valuable, practically, exhaustive publications about medicines! Success to you in everything! Health!